"Drilling wood for fire" "hitting stone for fire"The use of fire is an important milestone in the development of human civilization, and it demonstrates the wisdom of human beings in the harsh environment.People use fire to cook food, light and heat their homes. People use fire to ignite the most common branches and straw around them to get heat energy and support their survival and development.In the long ancient society, the branches and straw that we call biomass energy today are the earliest, most common and most important "classical" energy sources used by human beings.
Entering the modern society, with the development and utilization of coal, oil, natural gas and other fossil energy sources, the degree and proportion of human dependence on biomass energy have been greatly reduced.With fossil fuels, however, a large amount of consumption as one of the characteristics of traditional industrialization increasingly serious environmental problems, human efforts to the development and utilization of various renewable energy, optimization, "green" energy structure.It is in this context, as the "classical" energy, has a "green" "environmentally friendly" "renewable" and other characteristics of the biomass energy, under the impetus of the modern science and technology to glow of vitality.Since the founding of new China, especially over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, China has achieved fruitful results in the development and utilization of biomass energy.Today, in China's energy structure, biomass energy is on the road of revival with the momentum of steady and rapid development.
Energy is abundant in green and renewable energy
Biomass have broad sense and narrow sense and broad sense of biomass refers to the use of air, water, land, etc. Through photosynthesis and produce a variety of organisms, namely all the lives can grow organic substance known as a living, including all plants, microorganisms and plants, microorganisms as food animals and their production of waste.Representative biomass such as crops, crop waste, wood, wood waste and animal waste.
In a narrow sense of forestry biomass is mainly refers to the production process in addition to the food, fruit of straw, trees etc lignocellulose, agricultural product processing industry and animal husbandry, agriculture, forestry and waste materials such as livestock manure and waste in the process of production.
Biomass energy is the energy produced by biomass with biomass as the carrier.Biomass energy is a form of energy stored in living things by solar energy in the form of chemical energy, which is directly or indirectly derived from the photosynthesis of plants.
, according to estimates by the photosynthesis of the plants of the earth's energy consumption accounted for 0.2% of the sun to the earth's total amount, although ratio is very low, but the absolute value, to say the biomass energy is the energy of human inexhaustible treasure.Its main sources include firewood, livestock waste, sugar crops, municipal waste and sewage, aquatic plants and so on.
Biomass energy has three characteristics.One is renewable.Because it can be formed by the photosynthesis of plants, biomass energy, like wind energy and solar energy, is renewable energy, which is produced continuously to ensure sustainable utilization.Second, green.On the one hand, because the content of sulfur and nitrogen in biomass is very low, the combustion process will not cause harmful gases;Biomass burning emissions, on the other hand, the amount of carbon dioxide from its growth needs of carbon dioxide, and thus the approximate zero net emissions of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, not intensify the greenhouse effect.Third, it is widely distributed and rich in total quantity.According to biologists' estimates, the land produces 100 billion to 125 billion tons of biomass each year.The oceans produce 50 billion tons of biomass annually.The annual production of biomass energy far exceeds the total annual energy demand of the world.
The massive promotion of carbon dioxide gas will help build a beautiful countryside
Biogas is a typical example of biomass energy.Agricultural NongCunBu planning and design institute of engineers, wang said, biogas as a kind of convenient, clean and high quality biomass, is organic material such as straw, manure, sewage to a certain moisture content, temperature and anaerobic conditions, combustible gas produced by microbial fermentation.Due to its rich raw materials, simple technology, low cost and friendly environment, it is highly valued by the state.
The large-scale construction of rural household biogas began in the late 1950s.In 1979, the energy department of agriculture and other departments on the several problems in current rural biogas construction report, promoted the rural biogas construction, and in the early 1980 s there was a wave of construction high tide.Since then, by the beginning of this century, rural biogas construction has steadily developed.By the end of 2000, nearly 8.5 million rural households had biogas.From 2003 to 2015, rural biogas entered a new stage of rapid development driven by central investment.By the end of 2015, nearly 42 million households in China had used biogas, benefiting 200 million people.
The great development of biogas has brought profound influence to the construction of new rural areas. Specifically, it includes three aspects.
First, we have strengthened our capacity to ensure rural energy security.Rural biogas has historically solved the problem of improving the quality of cooking energy for more than 200 million people and promoted the clean and convenient use of household energy in rural areas.The large-scale biogas project not only provides gas for the surrounding farmers, but also meets the clean energy demands of gas, heat and electricity.In 2015, the biogas production capacity of 15.8 billion cubic meters, about 5% of the national natural gas consumption, about 11 million tons of standard coal each year to replace fossil energy, to optimize the structure of the national energy, enhance the capacity of national energy security has played a positive role.
Second, it has promoted the transformation of the agricultural development pattern.Rural biogas farming, to promote crop production, is the important measure to promote the development of ecological circular agriculture, not only effectively prevent and reduce the emissions of animal manure and chemical fertilizers non-point source pollution caused by excessive application, and to improve the quality and safety of agricultural products, promote green and organic agricultural production, agriculture reduce cost synergies, transformation of the mode of agricultural development played an important role.It is estimated that rural biogas can produce 71 million tons of marsh fertilizer annually, and 3.1 million tons of fertilizer can be reduced by nitrogen conversion, which can increase farmers' income and save nearly 50 billion yuan every year.
Third, it has promoted the development of rural ecological civilization.Rural biogas has realized the dung of livestock and poultry cultivation, straw, organic waste such as agriculture and rural areas of organic waste harmless treatment and resource utilization, easing "considered" problem in the rural environment.It has played a positive role in realizing clean rural homes, farms and water sources, building beautiful and livable villages and developing rural ecological civilization.
In biogas construction practice, Chinese scientists and engineering technical personnel conducted a series of innovation, developed to adapt to the north, south, and the northwest region of biogas technology pattern: the integration of the pool, corral, toilet, solar greenhouse, energy comprehensive utilization of the ecological system of "four one" mode;Integrating biogas digester, piggery and toilet, the energy ecological "trinity" mode is formed.The "five supporting" mode of energy ecology consists of biogas digester, orchard, warm circle, sanitary toilet and water storage cellar.In addition, in regard to the development of related technologies, "cold area dry wet coupled anaerobic fermentation technology" "distributed new rural utilization technology" "original highly active strains of biogas development technology" such as a breakthrough, has paved the way for the construction of biogas promotion.
It is worth mentioning that China biogas technology abroad, built a chicken farm to pay a Tunisian biogas power generation demonstration project, Tanzania sisal waste landfill gas power generation project, north Korea kindness farm biogas demonstration project of the national academy of sciences, moldova biogas demonstration projects, etc., for the international development and utilization of biomass energy, energy conservation and emission reduction made a positive contribution.
Pending power generation is expected to meet the 13th five-year target ahead of schedule
At the end of 2016, the second phase of Shanghai old port renewable energy utilization center project with a total investment of 3.6 billion yuan was launched.This seemingly ordinary opening ceremony is a great event in the field of biomass energy utilization in China, because the project was completed in 2019, after the production will make Shanghai the old port renewable energy center total garbage incineration life capacity up to 3 million tons/year, will have an annual capacity of 900 million kilowatt-hours, the world's first similar power plants.
Along with urbanization, China's size of urban living garbage produced more and more, and on the basis of classifying the recycling, for all kinds of organic fuel is burning biomass, do everything, is very popular in many countries.In recent years, in urban living garbage treatment in China, at the same time of resource recovery, recycling, incineration power generation as its disposal and electricity production and an important way of production of a batch of biomass power plant.According to ai-min li, a professor in the school of dalian university of technology environment, in the late 1980 s, China's first industrial waste incineration power plant in shenzhen were completed and put into operation, processing 300 tons of urban living garbage, installed capacity of 3000 kilowatts.In 2000, zhuhai garbage power plant, mainly equipped with domestic equipment, was built with 600 tons of garbage daily and an installed capacity of 6,000 kilowatts.A number of municipal solid waste incineration plants have been built in Shanghai, Beijing and chongqing.
In the vast rural areas, maize, wheat, rice, sorghum and other biomass after threshing are ideal raw materials for power generation.According to relevant data, the annual output of crop straw in China is about 700 million tons, and the annual total amount of straw that can be used as energy is 376 million tons.In recent years, under the support of relevant policies, some straw power generation projects have been constructed successively.In December 2006, with a total investment of about 300 million yuan of shandong power plant biomass power generation when the project is formally put into production, it is the first state-level biomass direct combustion power generation demonstration project completed and put into operation, its installed capacity of 25000 kilowatts.The fuel required by this power plant is mainly broken cotton straw, which can be mixed with burning some wood waste such as branches, mulberry strips and fruit branches.It can consume 15,000-200,000 tons of agricultural and forestry waste every year and generate about 160 million kilowatt-hours of electricity.Since then, a number of straw burning power plants have been built in succession in the country, so that some areas appear to be in short supply of straw fuel.
In 2017, China's biomass generated 79.4 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, up 22.7 percent year on year, according to the state energy administration's press conference earlier this year.Biomass power installed 2.74 million kilowatts, up 22.6% year on year.By the end of 2017, biomass has installed an installed capacity of 14.88 million kilowatts.The targets proposed in the 13th five-year plan for biomass energy are expected to be completed ahead of schedule.
To provide new renewable energy options for green travel
On November 1, 2017, sinopec Shanghai fengxian zhuang hang gas station and sinopec pudong airport weisan gas station began to provide a new type of oil :B5 biodiesel.It is a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel, which is processed by the commonly known "gutter oil".Shanghai's buses and sanitation cars already use B5 biodiesel.Practice has proved that the vehicle after using this biodiesel, not only the engine operation is normal, and fine particulate matter and heavy metal pollution emissions decreased by more than 10%, nitrogen purification efficiency up to 80% above, in addition, its sale price is 5% lower than the traditional diesel oil, the oil also welcomed by many consumers.Sinopec has increased its market supply of the oil accordingly.According to the relevant plan formulated by sinopec Shanghai branch, by the end of 2019, B5 will strive to reach 200 points of diesel sales network for vehicles, and its market supply capacity will reach 400,000 tons per year.
Biodiesel is produced by the exchange reaction between animal and plant oils and alcohols via esters. Compared with traditional petrochemical energy, it has low sulfur content and good lubricity.The main raw materials for biodiesel production in China are different from those in the world, which are mainly obtained from rapeseed, soybean, palm and other crops, while in China, "gutter oil" is the raw material.
Similar to biodiesel, bio-aviation kerosene is also made from animal and plant oils and obtained through hydrogenation technology and catalysis, and has been put into use in China.In April 2013, China became the fourth country in the world to master the technology of bio-jet oil after a test flight of a China Eastern airlines passenger plane was successfully loaded with domestic bio-jet oil.In November 2017, a hainan airlines flight was loaded with domestic bio-jet oil and completed trans-oceanic commercial passenger flight, marking the maturity of China's independent r&d and production technology of bio-jet oil.
In recent years, the large-scale production and application of biofuel ethanol has been a major development in China in terms of bio-liquid fuel.Biofuels ethanol is a good fuel, its main raw materials are sorghum, corn, cassava, seaweed and other renewable energy sources.
China's biofuel ethanol is developing rapidly.In 2001, the five ministries and commissions of the state promulgated the regulations on the treatment of aged grains, which stipulated that aged grains were mainly used for the production of ethanol and feed, and approved the establishment of four ethanol enterprises.After that, construction began in jilin and henan provinces on the 600,000-ton and 300,000-ton biofuel ethanol projects.Later, trials of car ethanol-gasoline began in some places.In 2015, China became the third-largest producer and consumer of fuel ethanol after the United States and Brazil, according to China economic net.In 2017, biofuel ethanol production reached 2.6 million tons.According to the 13th five-year plan for biomass energy development, the annual production of biofuel ethanol will reach 4 million tons by 2020."About expanding in September 2017, issued by biological fuel ethanol production and promote the use of motor ethanol gasoline implementation plan" clearly put forward, by 2020, a nationwide promotion use motor ethanol gasoline, complete coverage of basic implementation.This means that China's biofuel ethanol is facing a leapfrog development opportunity.
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